Crossbench Life Peers
The Crossbench Life Peers, who are not affiliated to any party, are appointed by the House of Lords Appointments Commission. They are people of distinction who bring a wide range of expertise and experience, and an independent approach, to the House.
Under the Government's proposals, the 152 currently appointed Crossbench Life Peers would be reduced to 60 or, in the case of the 100% elected option, to nil.
Under the Evolution Option there would remain 135 Crossbench Life Peers in the
reformed House of Lords. To demonstrate the
range and weight of experience provided by the current Crossbench Life Peers, they are
listed below (as at 28.1.12) with brief descriptions and links to their
biographies on Wikipedia.
Lord Adebowale. Victor Adebowale is the Chief Executive of the social care enterprise Turning Point. He was previously Regional Director of the Ujima Housing Association, Britian's largest black-led housing association. He was also Chief Executive of the youth homelessness charity Centrepoint.
Baroness Afshar. Haleh Afshar is a Professor in politics and women's studies at the University of York, and a visiting professor of Islamic law at the International Faculty of Comparative Law at Robert Schuman University in Strasbourg. She is a founding member of the Muslims Women's Network.
Lord Alton. David Alton is Professor of Citizenship at Liverpool John Moores University. In 1987 he founded, with the support of many MPs, the Jubilee Campaign for human rights. He has been an outspoken critic of the human rights record of China. He was formerly a Liberal Democrat MP.
Lord Armstrong. Robert Armstrong is a career civil servant, who worked in several departments including the Treasury and the Home Offfice. From 1970 to 1975 he served as Principal Private Secretary to the Prime Minister. From 1979 to 1987 he served as Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Civil Service.
Lord Best. Richard Best is a prominent figure in British social housing. He was Director of the British Churches Housing Trust, and Director of the National Federation of Housing Associations. From 1988 to 2006 he led the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and the Joseph Rowntree Housing Trust.
Lord Bew. Paul Bew is Professor of Irish Politics at Queen's University Belfast. He acted as a historical advisor to the Bloody Sunday Inquiry between 1998 and 2001. Professor Bew's contributions to the Good Friday Agreement were acknowledged when he was appointed as a Life Peer in 2007.
Lord Bichard. Michael Bichard Is a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Government and was until recently Chairman of the Design Council. A former local authority Chief Executive, he joined the civil service, becoming Permanent Secretary at the Department for Education and Employment.
Lord Bilimoria. Karan Bilimoria is an entrepreneur who was born in Hyderabad, India. After qualifying as an accountant and graduating in law from Cambridge University, he co-founded the Cobra Beer company. It produces a less fizzy lager suitable for drinking with Indian food.
Lord Birt. John Birt is a former Director General of the BBC. He previously had a successful career in current affairs broadcasting at Granada Television and London Weekend Television. After retiring from the BBC, he was appointed in 2001 by Prime Minister Tony Blair as a 'blue sky' strategic adviser.
Lord Blair. Ian Blair was Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police from 2005 to 2008. A graduate of the University of Oxford, Ian Blair joined the Metropolitan Police in 1974 under the High Potential Developer Scheme for Graduates. He transferred to Thames Valley Police in 1994 as assistant Chief Constable.
Baroness Boothroyd. Betty Boothroyd, former Labour MP, was the first and to date only female Speaker of the House of Commons. She was elected MP for West Bromwich in 1973, and was a member of the European Parliament from 1975 to 1977. She was Chancellor of the Open University from 1994 to 2006.
Lord Boyce. Admiral Michael Boyce is a former First Sea Lord and Chief of the Defence Staff, retiring from that post in 2003. He is a non-executive Director of WS Atkins Plc, and is a member of the Top Level Group of UK Parliamentarians for Multilateral Nuclear Disarmament and Non-proliferation.
Lord Bramall. Field Marshal Edwin Bramall served as Chief of the Defence Staff from 1982 to 1985. As a Life Peer he spoke out in the House of Lords against the involvement of the UK in the Second Iraq War warning that 'terrorism cannot be defeated by military means'.
Lord Briggs. Asa Briggs is a distinguished historian, who has held senior posts at Oxford University, Institute of Advanced Studies at Princeton, University of Leeds, and University of Sussex, where he was Vice Chancellor from 1967 to 1976. He was Chancellor of the Open University from 1978 to1994.
Lord Broers. Alec Broers is a former Vice Chancellor of the University of Cambridge. A pioneer of nanotechnology, he worked in the research & development laboratories of IBM in the USA for 19 years before returning to Cambridge to become Professor of Electrical Engineering.
Lord Browne. John Browne is a former Chief Executive of BP. During his tenure BP merged with Amoco to create one of the world's largest oil companies. Browne chaired an inquiry into student finance which recommended in 2010 that the cap on student fees should be lifted.
Lord Browne-Wilkinson. Nicolas Browne-Wilkinson is a former Senior Lord of Appeal and former Head of the Privy Council Vice Chancellor of the High Court. As head of the Privy Council he delivered a key ruling on a Vietnamese refugee in Hong Kong which has since been used in immigration cases globally.
Lord Burns. Terence Burns is a former Chief Economic Advisor and Permanent Secretary to the Treasury. He is a non-executive Director of Pearson Group plc, and is President of the National Institute of Economic and Social Research. He is a Fellow of the London Business School.
Lord Butler. Robin Butler was Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Home Civil Service from 1988 to 1998. He was previously Private Secretary to five Prime Ministers, including Edward Heath, Harold Wilson, and Margaret Thatcher. He was Master of University College, Oxford, from 1998 to 2008.
Baroness Butler-Sloss. Elizabeth Butler-Sloss was the first female Lord Justice of Appeal, and until 2004 was the highest-ranking female judge in the UK. She was previously President of the Family Division of the High Court of Justice. She is Chairman on the Security Commission.
Lord Cameron of Dillington. Ewen Cameron has been manager of the Dillington Estate in Somerset. He was National President of the Country Land and Business Association, was Chair of the Countryside Agency, and was a member of the Government's Round Table for Sustainable Development.
Lord Cameron of Lochbroom. Kenneth Cameron is a retired Scottish judge. He was Lord Advocate from 1984 to 1989. He was Chairman of the Royal Fine Art Commission for Scotland from 1995 to 2005. He is the Honorary President of Edinburgh University Sports Union.
Baroness Campbell of Loughborough. Sue Campbell is a former Chief Executive of the National Coaching Foundation. She is a former Deputy Director of Physical Education at Leicester University, then lectured in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Science at Loughborough University.
Baroness Campbell of Surbiton. Jane Campbell is a Commissioner of the Equality and Human Rights Commission, where she chairs the Disability Committee. In 1996 she co-founded the National Centre for Independent Living. In 1996 she co-authored a book entitled Disability Politics.
Lord Carey. George Carey was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1991 to 2002. He was the first modern holder of the office not to have attended Oxford or Cambridge University. During his tenure the Church ordained the first women priests. He was the first Archbishop of Canterbury to publish his memoirs.
Lord Carswell. Robert Carswell is a retired Lord of Appeal in Ordinary. He was educated at the University of Oxford and the University of Chicago Law School. In 1984 he became a Judge of the High Court of Justice in Norther Inreland. He was Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland from 1997 to 2004.
Lord Chitnis. Pratap Chitnis was Chief Exective of the Joseph Rowntree Social Service Trust from 1975 to 1988. He was Chairman of Refugee Action from 1981 to 1986, and was Chairman of the British Refugee Council from 1986 to 1989. He was education at University of Birmingham and University of Kansas.
Lord Condon. Paul Condon was Metropolitan Police Commissioner from 1993 to 2000. He read jurisprudence at the University of Oxford and joined the police in 1967, becoming Chief Constable of Kent in 1988. After retirement he became head of the International Cricket Council's anti-corruption unit.
Baroness Coussins. Jean Coussins is the former Chief Executive of the Portman Group, a non-for-profit organisation that promotes sensible drinking by the consumer and responsible marketing by the industry. She is a member of the Advertising Standards Authority.
Baroness Cox. Caroline Cox is the founder and Chief Executive of the Humanitarian Aid Relief Trust. She campaigns for humanitarian causes, particularly related to disability. She was Director of the Nursing Education Research Unit at Chelsea College of the University of London.
Lord Craig. Marshal of the Royal Air Force David Craig is a former Chief of the Defence Staff, a post he held from 1988 to 1991. He was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1929. He was Convenor of the Crossbench Peers in the House of Lords from 1999 to 2004.
Lord Crisp. Nigel Crisp was Permanent Secretary at the Department of Health. He was formerly Chief Executive of the Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals NHS Trust, and London Regional Director of the NHS Executive. Since retirement he has been very active in global health development.
Lord Cullen. William Cullen is a Scottish judge who served as Lord Justice General and Lord President of the Court of Session. He was also an additional Lord of Appeal. He is Chancellor of the University of Abertay Dundee. In 1996 he chaired the Public Inquiry into the shootings at Dunblane Primary School.
Lord Currie. David Currie is a former Dean of Cass Business School at City Univeristy, London. He was also Chairman of Ofcom, the regulatory authority for broadcasting, telecommunications, and postal services. He is an advisor to Unisys, and is a member of the Dubai Financial Services Authority.
Lord Curry. Donald Curry is a British farmer and businessman who is the Chairman of the NFU Mutual insurance company. He is also Chairman of the Better Regulation Executive. He is founder and Chairman of the At Home in the Community charity providing care for people with learning disabilities.
Lord Dannatt. General Richard Dannatt is a former Chief of the General Staff. Between November 2009 and May 2010 he was an adviser to David Cameron, then Leader of the Opposition. He is Chairman of the Council of the Royal United Services Institute. He is a patron of the Help for Heroes charity.
Lord Dear. Geoffrey Dear is a former Chief Constable of the West Midlands Police. He was previously Assistant Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police. In 1989 he headed the investigation into the Hillsborough Stadium disaster. In 1979 he was awarded the Queens Commendation for Brave Conduct.
Baroness Deech. Ruth Deech is an academic, lawyer, and bioethicist who chaired the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority from 1994 to 2002. She is Chair of the Bar Standards Board. She was Principal of St.Anne's College Oxford from 1991 to 2004.
Lord Eames. Robin Eames was the Anglican Primate of All Ireland and Bishop of Armagh from 1986 to 2006. He was Chairman of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Commission on 'Communion and Women in the Episcopate' from 1988 to 1989. He is Co-chairman of the Consultative Group on the Past.
Lord Elystan-Morgan. Dafydd Elystan-Morgan is a Welsh politician and solicitor who was originally a member of Plaid Cymru but then joined the Labour Party rising to Under-secretary at the Home Office. He was Chairman of the Welsh Parliamentary Labour Party from 1971 to 1974.
Baroness Emerton. Audrey Emerton was Chancellor and Chief Commander of St.John Ambulance, and was a voluntee for the organization for more than 50 years. She worked in the National Health Service as Chief Nursing Officer of South East Thames Regional Health Authority during the 1980s.
Lord Fellowes. Robert Fellowes is a former Private Secretary to the Queen. After an early career in the army and in banking, Fellowes was recruited to join the Royal Household in 1977. He spent the next 20 years in the Private Secretary's Office being appointed Private Secretary in 1990.
Baroness Finlay. Ilora Finlay is a Professor of Palliative Medicine at Cardiff University School of Medicine, and is a past president of the Royal Society of Medicine. In 2003 she proposed a bill to ban smoking in public buildings in Wales, a ban which was implemented three years later.
Baroness Flather. Shreela Flather is a former Mayor of the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead. She was the first Asian woman to receive a peerage. She is a prominent supporter of the British Humanist Association and is an honorary associate of the National Secular Society.
Baroness Fritchie. Rennie Fritchie is a specialist in training and development who has worked for the Equal Opportunities Commission on programmes to improve the status of women. She became Commissioner for Public Appointments in 1999. She is Pro-Chancellor at Southampton University.
Baroness Greenfield. Susan Greenfield, an academic at Oxford University, was Director of the Royal Institution from 1998 to 2010. Her research is focused on brain physiology, notably in relation to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. She was the first woman to give the Royal Institution Christmas Lecture.
Baroness Greengross. Susan Greengross was Director General of Age Concern England from 1987 to 2000. She is a Commissioner for the Equality and Human Rights Commission. She chairs the All-Party Parliamentary Groups on Corporate Social Responsibility and on Intergenerational Futures.
Baroness Grey-Thompson. Tanni Grey-Thompson is a Welsh Paralympic athlete and TV presenter. She has won 16 Paralympic medals, including 11 gold medals, winning two gold medals in wheelchair racing at her last Paralympic Games in Athens in 2004. She is a patron of numerous charities.
Lord Griffiths of Govilon. Hugh Griffiths was a Lord Justice of Appeal between 1985 and 1993. He served in the Welsh Guards during the Second World War, and received a Military Cross in 1944. He represented Cambridge University in cricket, and has been President of the MCC.
Lord Guthrie. General Charles Guthrie is a former Chief of the General Staff, holding the post from 1997 to 2001. He served with the Special Air Service, and was closely involved in military operations in Norther Ireland. He is a non-executive Director of N M Rothschild & Sons.
Lord Hall of Birkenhead. Tony Hall has been Chief Executive of the Royal Opera House since 2001. His previous career was with the BBC where he launched BBC Parliament, and Radio 5 Live. He edited the 9 O'Clock News at the early age of 34. He rose to be Director of News and Current Affairs Television.
Lord Hameed. Khalid Hameed is the Chairman of Alpha Hospital Group, and Chief Executive of the London International Hospital. Previously he was Chief Executive Officer of the Cromwell Hospital in London. He is Chairman of the Woolf Institute of Abrahamic Faiths and of the Friends of the British Library.
Lord Hannay. David Hannay was British Ambassador to the United Nations from 1990 to 1995. He was previously the British permanent representative to the European Economic Community. Starting in 1965 he was deeply involved in the negotiations that led to the UK's 1973 entry to the European Union.
Lord Harries. Richard Harries is the former Bishop of Oxford. He is the Professor of Divinity at Gresham College, London. As Bishop of Oxford he became a founder member of the Oxford Abrahamic Group, bringing together Christian, Muslim and Jewish scholars.
Lord Haskins. Christopher Haskins built up the Northern Foods company from its origins as Yorkshire-based Northern Dairies. He was Chairman of Northern Foods from 1980 to 2002. He chaired the Better Regulation Task Force and is a leading member of the Britain in Europe Campaign.
Lord Hastings. Michael Hastings is the Global Head of Citizenship and Diversity at the leading accountancy practice KPMG. He was previously the BBC's first Head of Corporate Responsibility, having been the BBC's Head of Public Affairs. In 2011 he became a Vice President of UNICEF.
Baroness Hayman. Helene Hayman was a Labour MP from 1974 to 1979, becoming a Life Peer in 1996. She was Lord Speaker of the House of Lords from 2006 to 2011. Before entering Parliament she worked at Shelter and for the Social Services Department at the London Borough of Camden.
Lord Hennessy. Peter Hennessy is Atlee Professor of Contemporary British History at Queen Mary, University of London. He has published widely on the history of Britain after the Second World War. In addition to his academic work, he has written for The Times, The Financial Times, and The Economist.
Lord Hoffman. Leonard Hoffman is a retired senior British judge. He was a Lord Justice of Appeal from 1992 to 1995. He is Honorary Professor of Intellectual Property Law at Queen Mary, University of London. He has been a prominent advocate of civil rights, and opponent of torture.
Baroness Hogg. Sarah Hogg was an economics editor for The Independent newspaper, and a presenter of Channel 4 News. She was head of the Prime Minister's Policy Unit for Sir John Major. In 2002 she became the first woman to chair a FTSE 100 company as Chairman of 3i.
Baroness Hollins. Sheila Hollins is Professor of Psychiatry and Learning Disability at St.George's, University of London. The was President of the Royal College of Pyschiatrists from 2005 to 2008. She has been a prominent advocate for improved mental health services.
Lord Hope of Thornes. David Hope was the Archbishop of York from 1995 to 2005. He was previously Principal of St.Stephen's House, an Anglo-Catholic theological college in Oxford, from 1974 to 1982. Before being appointed Archbishop of York he was Bishop of Wakefield, then Bishop of London.
Baroness Howarth. Valerie Howarth is a former Chief Executive of the ChildLine charity; she previously worked at Chief Officer and Assistant Chief Officer levels in social services departments. She is a Board member of the Food Standards Agency and is trustee of several children's charities.
Baroness Howe. Elspeth Howe was Deputy Chairman of the Equal Opportunities Commission from 1975 to 1979. She was also Chair of the Broadcasting Standards Commission, and was a member of the Department of Employment's working group on Women's Issues.
Lord Hutton. Brian Hutton is a former Lord Chief Justice of Norther Ireland and British Lord of Appeal. As a QC he represented the Ministry of Defence at the inquest into the killing of civil rights marchers on Bloody Sunday. He chaired the inquiry into the death of the scientist David Kelly.
Lord Imbert. Peter Imbert was Metropolitan Police Commissioner from 1987 to 1993. Previously he was Chief Constable of Thames Valley Police. Imbert is a patron of the Association of Security Consultants, which has awarded the Imbert Prize for advancement of security management annually since 2005.
Lord Inge. Field Marshal Peter Inge is a former Chief of the Defence Staff. Early in his military career he saw action during the Malayan Emergency and in Northern Ireland, he later provided advice to the Government during the Bosnian War. He was a non-executive Director of Racal Electronics plc.
Lord Janvrin. Robin Janvrin was Private Secretary to the Queen from 1999 to 2007. Janvrin joined the Royal Navy in 1964, and the Foreign & Commonwealth Office in 1975. He was Deputy Head of the FCO Personnel Department from 1985 to 1987, when he became Press Secretary to the Queen.
Lord Jay. Michael Jay is a former Head of the Diplomatic Service, who was previously British Ambassador to France. In 2005 he served as the Prime Minister's Personal Representative to prepare the G8 Summit at Gleneagles. He is Chairman of the House of Lords Appointments Commission.
Lord Jones. Digby Jones is a businessman who was Director General of the Confederation of British Industry from 2000 to 2006. He is Chairman of British Airways, a senior adviser to HSBC, and a corporate ambassador for Jaguar Cars. He is a Visiting Professor at University of Hull Business School.
Lord Kakkar. Ajay Kakkar is Professor of Surgery, University College London. He has been Hunterian Professor, Royal College of Surgeons of England, and has been awarded the David Patey Prize and the Knoll William Harvey Prize. He is Chair of the Board of Governors of Alleyn's School. #
Lord Kerr. John Kerr was Head of the Diplomatic Service from 1997 to 2002. He was previously British Ambassador to the United States. Before that he was Ambassador to the European Union, where he was deeply involved in the negotiations leading to the Maastricht Treaty.
Lord Kilclooney. John Taylor, Baron Kilclooney, is a former Ulster Unionist MP, and deputy leader of the UUP from 1995 to 2001. He is the owner of Alpha Newspapers which operates local newspaper titles in Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic. He survived an assassination attempt by the IRA in 1972.
Lord Knights. Philip Knights is a former Chief Constable of the West Midlands Police. He joined Lincolnshire Police as a police cadet in 1938, becoming a constable in 1940. He served in the Royal Air Force from 1943 to 1945. He returned to Lincolnshire, becoming a Chief Superintendent in 1957.
Lord Krebs. John Krebs is Royal Society Research Professor in the Department of Zoology, University of Oxford. He has been Principal of Jesus College, Oxford, since 2005. He is a leading expert in ornithology, including the assessment of the mental capacities of birds.
Lord Laming. Herbert Laming is a former probation officer and Director of Social Services in Hertfordshire. He was Chief Inspector of the Social Services Inspectorate from 1991 to 1998, and advisor to the Local Government Association, and President of the Association of Directors of Social Services.
Lord Levene. Peter Levene is a businessman and banker who was Chairman of the insurance company Lloyds of London. He was previously Vice Chairman of Deutsche Bank. Previously he was Chairman of United Scientific Holdings, and served under Michael Heseltine as Chief of Defence Procurement.
Lord Lewis. Jack Lewis was Professor of Chemistry at the University of Cambridge from 1970 to 1995. He was previously Professor of Chemistry at University of Manchester and then University College London. He was the first Warden of Robinson College Cambridge, holding the post until 2001.
Lord Lloyd of Berwick. Anthony Lloyd is a former Lord of Appeal. He is known for his leading judgement in the 1995 case of Page v Smith, which created an important distinction between primary and secondary victims of negligence. He chaired the special committee on the Speakership of the House of Lords.
Lord Low. Colin Low is Chairman of the Royal National Institute for the Blind. He has also been President of the European Blind Union since 2003. He taught Law and Criminology for 16 years at Leeds University before moving to London where he became a senior research fellow at City University.
Lord Luce. Richard Luce was Lord Chamberlain to the Queen from 2000 to 2006. He was previously Governor of Gibraltar and a Conservative MP and minister. He worked for Gallaher Ltd as a brand manager, and was then marketing manager of Spirella. He is President of the Voluntary Arts Network.
Lord McCluskey. John McCluskey is a former Solicitor General for Scotland, and a judge of Scotland's Supreme Courts. He is Chair of the Scottish Government's panel reivewing the UK Supreme Court's jurisdiction over Scottish human rights matters.
Baroness McFarlane. Jean McFarlane was trained as a nurse and midwife. In 1974 she became the holder of the first Chair of Nursing in an English University - at the University of Manchester. She is a Fellow of the Royal College of Nursing and a trustee of numerous charities.
Baroness Manningham-Buller. Eliza Manningham-Buller was Director General of MI5 from 2002 to 2007. She read Law at Oxford University and worked as a teacher for three years before joining MI5. She specialised in counter-terrorism and was active at the time of the Lockerbie bombing.
Lord Marshall. Colin Marshall is a businessman who was Chief Executive of British Airways. He held senior positions in the vehicle rental and leasing industry for 23 years, with Hertz and then Avis. He became Co-Chairman of Avis. He has been President of the Confederation of British Industry.
Lord Martin. Michael Martin is a former Labour MP and Speaker of the House of Commons for nine years until 2009. Born in Glasgowl Martin left school at 15 to become an apprentice sheet metal worker. He later served as a trade union organiser with the National Union of Public Employees.
Baroness Masham. Susan Cunliffe-Lister (Baroness Masham of Ilton) became disabled in a riding accident in 1959 and became a champion for causes related to disability. She runs the Masham Riding Centre in Masham, North Yorkshire. She has a particular interest in disability and penal reform.
Lord Mawson. Andrew Mawson co-founded in 1998 the Community Action Network, and was its President until 2010. His company Andrew Mawson Partnerships takes on regeneration work in London and throughout the UK. He published in 2008 'The Social Entrepreneur: Making Communities Work'.
Lord May. Robert May holds joint Professorships at the University of Oxford and Imperial College London. His research interests span mathematics, physics, and zoology. He has been Chief Scientific Adviser to the Government, and President of the Royal Society.
Baroness Meacher. Molly Meacher, known from 2000 to 2006 as Lady Layard, worked as a social worker in North London and for the Mental Health Foundation. In 2004 she became Chair of the East London and City Mental Health Trust, and has been Deputy Chair of the Police Complaints Authority.
Lord Millett. Peter Millett is a former Lord Justice of Appeal. He is known for his judgement in the McFarlane v Tayside Health Board case in which a couple were denied damages for the cost of bringing up an unwanted child born as a result of a negligently performed vasectomy.
Lord Mogg. John Mogg is the Chairman of energy regulator Ofgem, and of the EU Energy Regulators. Mogg spent his previous career in the Civil Service, mainly involved in industrial and European matters. He was Director General for the Internal Market and Financial Services in the European Commission.
Lord Molyneaux. James Molyneaux is a former Northern Irish Unionist politician who was leader of the Ulster Unionist Party from 1979 to 1995. He served in the Royal Air force from 1941 to 1946, and participated in the liberation of the Belsen concentration camp.
Baroness Morgan. Delyth Morgan is a former Labour MP, who had a long career in the voluntary sector, including ten years leading the Breakthrough Breast Cancer charity. She played a leading role in creating public awareness of breast cancer, previously a hidden and rarely discussed condition.
Lord Moser. Claus Moser was Director of the Central Statistical Office from 1967 to 1978. He was Professor of Social Statistics at the London School of Economics from 1961 to 1970, and Visiting Professor until 1975. He has been Chairman of the Royal Opera House and the Economist Intelligence Unit.
Baroness Murphy. Elaine Murphy worked as a doctor and teacher in the National Health Service for 25 years. She was Professor of Psychiatry of Old Age at Guy's Hospital, and was Chair of the North East London Strategic Health Authority. She is Vice President of the Alzheimer's Society.
Lord Mustill. Michael Mustill is a former Lord of Appeal in Ordinary. He was Chairman of the Judicial Studies Board from 1985 to 1989, and was Chairman of the Departmental Committee on the Law of Arbitration. He served in the Royal Artillery from 1949 to 1951.
Lord Neill. Patrick Neill is a barrister specialising in commercial and public law. He was Warden of All Souls College from 1977 to 1995, and was Vice Chancellor of the University of Oxford from 1985 to 1989. He was Chairman of the Committee on Standards in Public Life from 1997 to 2000.
Baroness Neuberger. Julia Neuberger is the Senior Rabbi to the West London Synagogue. She is President of the Liberal Judaism movement, was Chair of Camden and Islington Community Health Services NHS Trust from 1992 to 1997, and Chief Executive of the King's Fund from 1997 to 2004.
Lord Nicholls. Donald Nicholls is a retired Lord of Appeal in Ordinary. He came to prominence in 1988 when he and other Law Lords ruled that Augusto Pinochet could be extradited to Chile. He argued that the State Immunity Act 1978 flouted a battery of international legislation on human rights abuses.
Lord Nickson. David Nickson is a former Group Managing Director of the publishers William Collins. He has also been a non-executive director or chairman of numerous companies including Clydesdale Bank, Scottish & Newcastle Breweries, and Hambros Bank.
Lord O'Donnell. Gus O'Donnell is a former Cabinet Secretary. He started his civil service career as an economist at the Treasury. He served in the British Embassy in Washington, and became Press Secretary to the Prime Minster in 1990. He has been the UK Executive Director at the IMF and the World Bank.
Baroness O'Loan. Nuala O'Loan is a solicitor who was a law lecturer at the Ulster Polytechnic and University of Ulster. She served as Northern Ireland's first Police Ombudsman from 1999 to 2007. She is Chairman of the Governing Body of the National University of Ireland, Maynooth.
Baroness O'Neill. Onora O'Neill is a Professor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge. She has been Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge, President of the British Academy, and Chairman of the Nuffield Foundation. She was a member, and then acting chair, of the Human Genetics Advisory Commission.
Lord Ouseley. Herman Ouseley is a former Local Authority Chief Executive, who was chair and chief executive in the Commission for Racial Equality from 1993 to 2000. He now operates as a management consultant undertaking reviews of organisations' performance in pursuit of equality and diversity outcomes.
Lord Owen. David Owen, who originally qualified as a doctor, is a former Labour Foreign Secretary, a post he held from 1977 to 1979. In 1981 he left the Labour Party as one of the four founders of the Social Democratic Party, which he led from 1983 to 1987.
Lord Oxburgh. Ronald Oxburgh is a former head of the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Cambridge, where he was President of Queen's College. He was Chief Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Defence, and was Rector of Imperial College from 1993 to 2000.
Lord Pannick. David Pannick is a barrister practising mainly in the areas of public law and human rights. He argued 100 cases before the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords before it was replaced by the new Supreme Court. He has been a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, since 1978.
Lord Patel of Dunkeld. Narendra Patel is British-Tanzanian obstetrician who was President of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists from 1995 to 1998. He has been Chairman of the Stem Cell Steering Committee since 2003, and Chancellor of the University of Dundee since 2006.
Lord Patten. Chris Patten is a former Conservative Minister and Chairman of the Conservative Party. He is Chairman of the BBC Trust, and Chancellor of the University of Oxford. He was the last Governor of Hong Kong. He served from 2000 to 2004 as a member of the European Commission.
Lord Powell. Charles Powell is a former foreign policy adviser to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. After a career in the Foreign Office he was seconded to 10 Downing Street as her Private Secretary. Since 1992 he has pursued a business career; his directorships include the chairmanship of Louis Vuitton UK.
Baroness Prashar. Usha Prashar has a background in social administration. From 1976 to 1984 she was a director of the Runnymede Trust. From 1986 to 1991 she was a director of the National Council for Voluntary Organisations. She was First Civil Service Commissioner from 2000 to 2005.
Lord Quirk. Randolph Quirk is a former Professor of English at University College London. He is known for the Survey of English Usage which he an colleagues undertook during the 1960s. It involved compiling a database of more than a million words as record in actual use in everyday life.
Lord Ramsbotham. General David Ramsbotham is an Army officer who served in Northern Ireland and was head of the Army's Public Relations from 1982 to 1984. He was promoted to Lieutenant-General and Commander UK Field Army in 1987. He served on retirement as Chief Inspector of Prisons.
Lord Rana. Diljit Rana came to England from Punjab in 1963 and has since 1966 lived in Belfast. He is a property developer, hotelier, and President of the Northern Ireland Chamber of Commerce and Industry. He is India's honorary consul in Belfast.
Lord Rees. Martin Rees is Professor of Cosmology and Astrophysics at the University of Cambridge, where he is Master of Trinity College. He is Astronomer Royal, and has been President of the Royal Society. He was one of the first to propose that enormous black holes power quasars.
Lord Rees-Mogg. William Rees-Mogg is a journalist and former Editor of The Times. He previously worked for the Financial Times and the Sunday Times, where he became Deputy Editor. He has been a member of the BBC Board of Governors and of the Arts Council.
Lord Renwick. Robin Renwick is a former Ambassador to the USA, a post he held from 1991 to 1995. He formerly served in New Delhi and Paris. He has served on the boards of British Airway, Harmony Gold, BHP Billiton, SAB Miller, and JP Morgan Cazenove.
Baroness Richardson. Kathleen Richardson was the first woman President of the Methodist Conference from 1992 to 1993. She was the moderator of the Free Churches Council from 1995 to 1999. She is a member of the panel for the public inquiry into the death of Robert Hamill.
Lord Rix. Brian Rix is a former actor, who specialised in farces such as Simple Spymen and Dry Rot. He appeared in 11 films and 70 farces for BBC TV. He retired from acting in 1980 to become Secretary General of the National Society for Mentally Handicapped Children and Adults (Mencap).
Lord Rowe-Beddoe. David Rowe-Beddoe is a businessman who was Chief Executive of Thomas De La Rue from 1971 to 1976. He was Chairman of the Welsh Development Agency from 1993 to 2002. He is President of the Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama.
Lord Sacks. Jonathan Sacks is the Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth. He is spiritual head of the United Synagogue, the larges synagogue body in the UK. His book 'The Dignity of Difference' was awarded the Grawemeyer Award for Religion.
Lord Saville. Mark Saville is a former Justice of the Supreme Court. Between 1994 and 1996 he chaired a committee on arbitration law that led to the Arbitration Act 1996. In 1998 he was appointed to chair the second Bloddy Sunday Inquiry, whose report was published in 2010.
Lord Scott of Foscote. Richard Scott is a former Lord of Appeal in Ordinary. In 1992 he chaired an inquiry into the Arms to Iraq controversy. He has called for tighter regulation of the arms trade. He was first appointed a judge, in the Chancery Division, in 1983.
Lord Singh. Indarjit Singh is a journalist and broadcaster who is prominent in Sike and inter-faith activities. He is editor of the Sikh Messenger, and frequently presents the Thought for the Day segment on BBC Radio 4. From 1955 to 1975 he worked in mining engineering at the National Coal Board.
Lord Skidelsky. Robert Skidelsky is Emeritus Professor of Political Economy at the University of Warwick. Skidelsky left the Labour Party to became a founding member of the SDP. He joined the Conservatives in 1992 and served in Government under William Hague. He became a Crossbencher in 2001.
Lord Smith of Kelvin. Robert Smith is a Scottish businessman. He was Managing Director of Charterhouse Development Capital from 1985 to 1989, and was CEO of Morgan Grenfell Asset Management. He has been a director at Bank of Scotland and Network Rail, and a Governor at the BBC.
Lord Stern. Nicholas Stern was the Chief Economist of the World Bank from 2000 to 2003, then becoming an economic adviser to the UK government. Before joining the World Bank he was Professor of Economics at the University of Warwick and then at the London School of Economics.
Lord Stevens of Kirkwhelpington. John Stevens is a former Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, a post he held from 2000 to 2005. He was previously Chief Constable of Northumbria Police and one of HM Inspectors of Constabulary. He was advisor to Prime Minister Gordon Brown on international security issues.
Lord Stevenson. Dennis Stevenson started his business career by setting up SRU Consultancy Group. He was appointed at the age of 26 as Chairman of the Newton Aycliffe and Peter lee New Town Development Corporation. He has been a director of BSkyB and Lazard Bros, and Chairman of Pearson and HBOS.
Lord Steyn. Johan Steyn is a former Lord of Appeal in Ordinary. As a Law Lord he was a prominent advocate for human rights. He was a fierce critic of Augusto Pinochet's claim to stand immune from prosecution, and was critical of Camp X-ray at Guantanamo Bay.
Lord Stirrup. Air Chief Marshal Jock Stirrup is a former Chief of the Defence Staff. As a junior RAF officer he was a fast jet pilot, seeing action in the Dhofar War. He suggested in 2010 that the merging of the three service branches of the British armed forces might be debated.
Lord Sutherland. Stewart Sutherland is a former Professor of the History and Philosophy of Religion at King's College London, serving as Principal of the College in 1985. He was Vice-Chancellor of the University of London, then Chief Inspector of Schools then Vice-Chancellor, University of Edinburgh.
Lord Templeman. Sydney Templeman is a former Lord of Appeal in Ordinary. As a barrister his specialist field was intellectual property. He sponsored the Land Registration Act 1988, which led tot he land register of England and Wales being open to the public for the first time in 1990.
Lord Thomas of Swynnerton. Hugh Thomas is a historian who was Professor of History at the University of Reading from 1966 to 1975. He was Chairman of the Centre for Policy Studies from 1979 to 1991. He has written books on the Spanish Civil War and on the history of Cuba.
Lord Tombs. Francis Tombs is an industrialist who was Chairman on the South of Scotland Electricity Board, the Electricity Council, and Rolls Royce. He was President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers in 1981. He has written a memoir: 'Power Politics: Political Encounters in Industry and Engineering'.
Lord Turnbull. Andrew Turnbull is a former Cabinet Secretary, a post he held from 2002 to 2005, serving under Prime Minister Tony Blair. He was previously Permanent Secretary to the Treasury. He is a trustee of the Global Warming Policy Foundation.
Lord Turner. Adair Turner is a businessman who has worked for BP, Chase Manhattan Bank, and McKinsey & Co. He was Director General of the CBI from 1995 to 1999. He chaired the Economic and Social Research Council and is chairman of the Financial Services Authority.
Baroness Valentine. Jo Valentine is Chief Executive of London First, which represents to national and local government the most pressing issues affecting London's leading businesses. She previously worked in corporate finance at Barings Bank and at the BOC Group.
Lord Vincent. Field Marshal Richard Vincent is a former Chief of the Defence Staff. He was Commandant of the Royal Military College of Science at Shrivenham from 1980 to 1983. He chaired the Military Committee of NATO from 1993 to 1996 and on retirement was Chancellor of Cranfield University.
Lord Walker. General Michael Walker is a former Chief of the Defence Staff. In 1994 he was appointed Commander of NATO's Allied Rapid Reaction Corps. The Corps deployed to the Balkans in 1995, where Walker became the first commander of the land component of the NATO-led Implementation Force.
Lord Walton. John Walton is a former President of the British Medical Association and of the Royal Society of Medicine. H was Warden of Green College, Oxford, from 1983 to 1989. He was from 1993 to 1994 Chair of the Medical Ethics Committee.
Baroness Warnock. Mary Warnock is a philosopher who was Headmistress of Oxford High School for Girls from 1966 to 1972. She was a Research Fellow at St.Hugh's College Oxford, and subsequently Mistress of Girton College Cambridge. She chaired the Committee of Inquiry into Human Fertilisation.
Lord Weidenfeld. George Weidenfeld is a former publisher who co-founded the firm Weidenfeld and Nicholson. In 1949 he served as political adviser and Chief of Cabinet to Chaim Wiezmann of Israel. He has been a Governor of Tel Aviv University, and Trustee of the National Portrait Gallery.
Lord Williams of Baglan. Michael Williams is a British diplomat who has held several senior positions at the United Nations. These included the role of Director of Information for the UN Protection Force in Former Yugoslavia. He has previously worked for Amnesty International the BBC World Service.
Lord Williamson. David Williamson is a former senior civil servant who was Head of the European Secretariat in the Cabinet Office. From 1987 to 1997 he was Secretary-General of the European Commission. He has been Convenor of the Crossbench members of the House of Lords.
Lord Wilson of Dinton. Richard Wilson is a former Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Home Civil Service. He previously served as Permanent Secretary at the Department of the Environment and at the Home Office. He is currently Master of Emmanuel College, Cambridge University.
Lord Wilson of Tillyorn. David Wilson is a former British diplomat whose final post was as the penultimate Commander-in-Chief and Governor of Hong Kong. From 1968 to 1974 he took leave of absence from the Foreign Office to edit The China Quarterly at the School of Oriental and African Studies.
Lord Woolf. Harry Woolf was Master of the Rolls from 1996 to 2000, and Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales from 2000 to 2005. He conducted in 2005 a review of the working methods of the European Court of Human Rights. He is Chairman of the Bank of England Financial Markets Law Committee.
Lord Wright of Richmond. Patrick Wright is a former Head of the Diplomatic Service. His ambassadorial posts included Luxembourg, Syria, and Saudi Arabia. He has been a director of Barclays Bank, British Petroleum, De La Rue, Unilever, and British Airports Authority.
Baroness Young of Hornsey. Lola Young is an artist and author who has been a senior lecturer and professor of cultural studies at Middlesex University. From 2001 to 2004 she was head of culture at the Greater London Authority. She has also been a member of the Board of the Royal National Theatre.
The Lordsreform.org website aims to inform public debate on changes proposed to the House of Lords in the 2011 White Paper. To focus discussion, it proposes some key changes to the Draft Bill regarding part-time Peers, size of House, and indirect elections. The website is edited by Dr Alex Reid.